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Fixing the Barnyard2 PID File Problem

For the longest time I've gotten the following error from Snort's barnyard2 spooler process:

barnyard2: Could not remove pid file /var/run// Permission denied

On Ubuntu 16.04, the barnyard2 process is created in this systemd unit file:


This process creates the pid file in the /var/run directory before the user permissions drop to the level provided by the '-u' option. Then when exiting, the process attempts to delete the pid file that was created with elevated privileges.

To fix this, I modified the process's systemd file:

Description=Barnyard2 Daemon

ExecStartPre=-/bin/mkdir /var/run/snort
ExecStartPre=/bin/chown -R snort:snort /var/run/snort/
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/barnyard2 -c /etc/snort/barnyard2.conf -d /var/log/snort -f snort.u2 -q -w /var/log/snort/barnyard2.waldo -g snort -u snort -D -a /var/log/snort/archived_logs --pid-path=/var/run/snort


The ExecStartPre directive specifies commands to be run before the daemon is started. We're using it to create a new directory for the pid file that is owned by the snort user. This needs to be created each time, otherwise it will get wiped out after a reboot. The minus sign in the command means any errors (such as the directory already existing) will be ignored.

The User and Group directives ensure that the process will run as the snort user, which includes creating the pid file. However, in order to create the /var/run/snort directory, the ExecStartPre directives still need to be run with elevated permissions. The PermissionsStartOnly accomplishes this – it only switches to the snort user to start the actual daemon. Here is the entry from the systemd manual page:

Takes a boolean argument. If true, the permission-related execution options, as configured with User= and similar options are only applied to the process started with ExecStart=, and not to the various other ExecStartPre=, ExecStartPost=, ExecReload=, ExecStop=, and ExecStopPost= commands. If false, the setting is applied to all configured commands the same way. Defaults to false.

The last thing necessary is to provide the non-default pid file location to the barnyard2 process. This is done by appending the following option to the end of the ExecStart command:


Now barnyard2 should run without errors! Let me know if you had the same issue.


Note: The following item was added after I originally posted this article.

I still had one more error after making the above changes. It is as follows:

barnyard2: Parsing config file "/etc/snort/barnyard2.conf"
barnyard2: FATAL ERROR: Unable to open config file "/etc/snort/barnyard2.conf": Permission denied.

The barnyard2 process could no longer read the barnyard2 config file. On my system, the config file was owned by root with permissions of 640.

Originally, the barnyard2 process started with elevated privileges, so it could read the config file without issue. This was changed by adding the User and Group directives to the systemd unit file to ensure that the pid file would be owned by snort.

Because the barnyard2 config file contains database credentials, it should not be readable by all users. So I changed its group owner to be snort:

cd /etc/snort
sudo chgrp snort barnyard2.conf
ls -la barnyard2.conf
-rw-r----- 1 root snort 12123 Aug 12  2016 barnyard2.conf

Now the less privileged barnyard2 process can still read it on startup.


Here are a few articles that were helpful when coming up with these solutions:

2 thoughts on “Fixing the Barnyard2 PID File Problem

  1. Michael Schroeder

    I get the following error when trying the above:
    (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)
    on both ExecStart and ExecStartPre.

    I'm running this in a test environment and I know it's not best practice but can't I just run this with root user?

    1. matt

      I actually gave up on Snort altogether so I can't say. If you have anything worth adding to this article please let me know and I'll create an addendum with your notes.


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