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PSAD on Raspberry Pi

I have never gotten a full intrusion detection system (IDS) working correctly on a Raspberry Pi. The two most popular – Snort and Bro IDS – either have problems with their dependencies or the ARM architecture.

I recently came across PSAD – the Port Scan Attack Detector. It is essentially a collection of daemons that analyze iptables logs to identify patterns of malicious traffic. When used in conjunction with fwsnort, PSAD can also correlate blocked traffic with many of the "Emerging Threats" Snort rules.

PSAD was extremely easy to set up on a Raspberry Pi that's deployed as a catch-all DMZ host on my home network. Before diving into the details, you can see live data being collected by that host here: https://psad.disloops.com

Setting up PSAD and UFW

This setup relies on the base configuration for a Raspberry Pi that's described here: https://disloops.com/raspberry-pi-3-basics/

To begin, first install PSAD:

sudo apt-get install psad

In the tutorial above, UFW was set up as a wrapper over iptables. However, UFW logs do not have the level of detail that PSAD requires. Without modifying the logging capabilities, some messages may be discarded before PSAD can analyze them.

First back up the UFW configuration files:

cd /etc/ufw
sudo cp before.rules before.rules.old
sudo cp before6.rules before6.rules.old

Now edit the files above to add the following block just before the lines containing the final COMMIT directive:

# Custom PSAD logging directives
-A INPUT -j LOG --log-tcp-options
-A FORWARD -j LOG --log-tcp-options

These lines will ensure that iptables events are logged properly. The --log-tcp-options argument adds additional data to the log files that can be used to detect certain attacks. The EXPECT_TCP_OPTIONS parameter in the PSAD configuration below corresponds to this setting.

Now PSAD can be configured:

cd /etc/psad
sudo cp psad.conf psad.conf.old
sudo vi psad.conf

Here are some of the parameters that should be modified:

HOSTNAME                       your_host_here;
HOME_NET                       192.168.0.0/16;
ALERTING_METHODS               noemail;

The first two are self-explanatory. The ALERTING_METHODS setting accepts three values: noemail, nosyslog, and ALL. Here it's being set to suppress email alerts.

IPT_SYSLOG_FILE                /var/log/ufw.log;

This just tells PSAD where to acquire iptables log data. The UFW configuration above was modified so that this data would be captured correctly.

EXPECT_TCP_OPTIONS             Y;

Because some scanning tools don't set options in the TCP headers, using this setting allows PSAD to better identify those attacks. PSAD also uses this information to passively fingerprint remote operating systems. This setting depends on the --log-tcp-options argument provided in the UFW configuration files above.

IMPORT_OLD_SCANS               Y;

This tells PSAD to re-import old scan data after a restart instead of moving it to the archive directory, which allows the statistics to remain persistent across reboots.

Lastly, have PSAD download the latest set of modified Snort signatures and reboot:

sudo psad --sig-update
sudo reboot

Setting up fwsnort

The fwsnort tool parses Snort rules and builds an equivalent iptables ruleset for as many rules as possible. Currently, fwsnort downloads and processes the "Emerging Threats" Snort ruleset.

First download and unzip fwsnort:

cd; mkdir Downloads; cd Downloads
wget https://github.com/mrash/fwsnort/archive/master.zip
sudo unzip master.zip -d /usr/local/src
cd /usr/local/src/fwsnort-master

Then run the installation script:

sudo su
./install.pl
exit

Once installed, modify the HOME_NET parameter in /etc/fwsnort/fwsnort.conf so that it matches what was set up in psad.conf above.

Now the Snort rules need to be updated, parsed, and added to iptables:

sudo fwsnort --update-rules
sudo fwsnort
sudo /var/lib/fwsnort/fwsnort.sh

Unfortunately, the iptables rules won't persist across a reboot. To save them, simply add the above script to rc.local so that it's run each time the system starts:

sudo vi /etc/rc.local

Just add /var/lib/fwsnort/fwsnort.sh above the line containing the exit command. Then reboot.

Note: Every other method of making iptables rules persistent did not work, including iptables-persistent and netfilter-persistent. You can ensure that the Snort rules have been added to iptables by running:

sudo fwsnort --ipt-list

Next Steps

The /var/log/psad directory contains some output files that provide data and statistics on incoming traffic. Running the following command will produce a file called status.out that compiles the more interesting details into a presentable format:

sudo psad --Status

There are some visualization tools available for PSAD but nothing that met my needs. Instead, I created a script that generates an HTML page from the data contained in the PSAD output files. You can download it here: PSADify on Github

Take a look at the output data and let me know if you have any observations!

Sources

This article was helpful in getting PSAD to work with UFW:
https://gist.github.com/netson/c45b2dc4e835761fbccc

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